Transformed into an aircraft carrier? A heavier caliber had been considered for the main artillery, and was preferred by Adolf Hitler, since the Dunkerque-class battleships were armed with 330 mm (13 in) guns. Her 152 mm (6.0 in) secondary battery was also not yet installed, and it was replaced by anti-aircraft machine guns. It was submitted to the Minister 14 August, accepted on 31 August, and laid down 22 October 1935 to become Richelieu. She was also the first modern battleship built after the 1922 Treaty of Washington.She featured a main armament of eight 380 mm … [56][111] The Italian Littorio-class battleships reached 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) with a 230 meters (750 ft) hull and 140,000 hp. [154] During the two days, the Richelieu fired a total of 24 rounds. She arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 10 April 1944, in time to join the attack by Task Force 65 on Sabang on 19 April (Operation Cockpit) and on Surabaya in May 1944 (Operation Transom); she also served in Operations Councillor and Pedal, in June. [170] During a careening in Toulon in 1951, she was fitted with French-built radar devices, and received one new-built 380 mm (15 in) gun and three guns seized by the Germans, two having been installed during the war in shore batteries in Norway and in Normandy, the third having been used for trials at the Krupp proving grounds in Meppen (Germany). [63][64][lower-alpha 8], Each Richelieu turret was divided in two half turrets, by a 25 mm (0.98 in) to 45 mm (1.8 in) bulkhead. The 380 mm (15 in) shell was an Armor Piercing Capped (APC) shell, registered in the French Navy as Obus de Perforation (OPf). [128] As the firing arcs of the 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets amidships were intended to be mainly directed forwards, the 100 mm (3.9 in) AA battery would have been shielded enough from their blast effects. [195] In 1964, when a command ship was looked for by the Pacific Center for Nuclear Experiments, the cruiser De Grasse was preferred to the Jean Bart, which would have been more expensive to transform. All this required machinery generating 150,000 hp to reach the 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) requested by the French Navy Board. Dunkerque had a displacement of 26,500 tons and was armed with eight 330 mm guns. New quadruple 37 mm (1.5 in) zénithaux[lower-alpha 13] mountings, intended to be used against dive-bombing aircraft, would have been installed on each side of the quarterdeck near the aviation hangar. In late April and early May, the three last 100 mm turrets were embarked, the fire control directors for the main and secondary batteries fitted atop the towers,and the 152 mm guns installed in the after turrets. The third day, as HMS Resolution had been struck by a torpedo from a French submarine, the British and Free French force retreated. [51], As on the Dunkerque, the underwater protection consisted of a sandwich of void spaces, light bulkheads, liquid loading compartments or compartments filled with a rubber-based water-excluding compound (ébonite-mousse), and a heavy internal holding bulkhead to absorb the explosion of a torpedo head. [127], On the Clemenceau, the main artillery arrangement was as on the Richelieu and Jean Bart. 50 × 20 mm (0.79 in) CAS Oerlikon mountings (French Equatorial Africa), who had been formerly Gouverneur Général de l'A.O.F. During the night of July 7 to 8, five days after the attack on the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, a team from HMS Hermes attempted to damage the Richelieu with depth charges moored under her stern, but they did not explode. The crippled battleship was pumped out after a few days and made seaworthy for emergencies, and moored inside the Dakar harbor. The second aft turret in superfiring position had a greater part of its barbette above the main armored deck, and thus needed more 100 mm (3.9 in) plating. One of her guns is on display in the harbor of Brest. Boiler room 1 was underneath the fore tower, with, from starboard to port, boilers #10, #11, and #12, followed by the forward engine room housing the geared turbines for the wing shafts. [117], In 1937, Italy ordered two more Vittorio Veneto-class battleships, to be laid down in 1938. Feb 23, 2016 - Explore Noel Cheng's board "Richelieu battleship" on Pinterest. In the morning, Swordfish bombers from the Hermes torpedoed Richelieu below the armored deck. Two of these mountings would have been positioned in front of the fore tower in superfiring position abaft the fore 380 mm (15 in) turrets, and four other ones, abeam the funnel and the axial aft 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets, and abaft the 152 mm (6.0 in) amidships turrets. [72], The OPfK Model 1935 incorporated a dye bag and fuze (dispositif K) to color[lower-alpha 9] not only misses but hits, thereby facilitating spotting for ships operating in formation while in combat. In 1941, an inquiry commission under Admiral de Penfentenyo de Kervérégen concluded there had been a mistake in the shell base design. [14] The top speed was, for most battleships, 21–25 knots (39–46 km/h);[lower-alpha 4] the Nagato-class battleships had 26.5 knots (49.1 km/h; 30.5 mph) top speeds;[16] and a few in Western waters, the fast battleships or battlecruisers, had top speeds exceeding 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). All British or U.S. battleships built in the late 1930s, having to respect the 35,000 tons displacement limit, had a speed of 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph) â€“ the King George V class â€“ or 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) â€“ North Carolina or South Dakota classes; they were 225 meters (738 ft) or 215 meters (705 ft) long, with a propulsion plant developing respectively 110,000, 120,000, or 130,000 shp. Completed as a classic battleship as designed? The planes were moved on rails from the hangar to the elevator where they were placed on both catapults. The ship was equipped with 380 mm guns, had a high speed, strong armor and very good torpedo protection. The boilers were of a new type, the so-called suralimenté meaning pressure-fired (and thus the abbreviation of Sural) boilers. [88], Richelieu refitted at Durban from 18 July to 10 August,[89] where the boilers which had been often emitting black smoke, during her Indian Ocean campaigns, were overhauled. [119] Ultimately the U.S.A. adopted 16-inch (406 mm) guns for their new fast battleship classes,[120] whereas the United Kingdom chose to respect the original Second London Naval Treaty limitations for the King George V-class battleships. If you can improve it further, please do so. Made buoyant, presumably in 1941, to vacate the building basin, moored near the submarine base,[199] or towed to Landevenec,[200] and intended for use by the Germans as a blocking ship to seal off the harbour entrance, this uncompleted hull was sunk during a U.S. air raid at the beginning of the offensive to free Brest (on 27 August 1944) and scrapped post-war. 37 mm AA gun [114], In each Engine Room, there were two sets of turbines, each driving a four-bladed propeller with a diameter of 4.88 meters (16.0 ft). For the 152 mm (6.0 in) artillery, there were two fire control systems. [78] She participated in an operation off the northern coast of Norway, covering the Home Fleet aircraft carriers sent to attack the maritime German traffic (Operation Posthorn, 10–12 February 1944). However, in 1940 only a prototype ACAD mounting (designated Model 1936) was tested (aboard the old patrol sloop Amiens; it was apparently successfully used during the Dunkirk evacuation). The 100 mm (3.9 in) CAD Model 1931 turrets were dual-purpose. However by November 1940 it became evident that this would not be provided in time for the Richelieu's completion. The maximum of nine guns corresponded to a battery of three triple turrets, as announced by the Stefani News agency for the new Italian battleships. By this, France was breaking the Washington Treaty and the 1930 London Treaty, since 88,000 long tons (89,412 t) of new battleships (instead of 70,000 long tons (71,123 t)) had been ordered since 1922 and before 31 December 1936. [28], On Richelieu, the armor weight was 16,045 tonnes (15,792 long tons) and corresponded to 39.2% of the total weight, for a 40,927 tonnes (40,281 long tons) normal displacement, with 2,905 tonnes (2,859 long tons) of fuel (half of full load). [55][56], Richelieu at Dakar, in 1941, as there were three fire control directors atop the fore tower, and neutrality tricolor bands on turret II. On the Dunkerque, to avoid this risk the forward turrets had been positioned 27 meters (89 ft) apart from one another,[41] further apart than on the Nelson-class battleships. France and Italy each were also allowed (after 1927) to replace two of their old battleships. [157], The seaplane equipment (hangar, catapults, and crane) had been removed in Dakar. The conning tower was better protected, with 406 mm (16.0 in) on the North Carolina and South Dakota classes and with 445 mm (17.5 in) on the Iowa class. The fourth barrel from Jean Bart was used for trials at the Dahlgren firing range in Dahlgren, Virginia. The maximum range against sea targets, with a 45° elevation, was 24,500 meters (80,400 ft). [132], As a last consequence, the center line arrangement of the 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets aft placed the extreme aft turret (turret VI) in frame 54.45,[128] while on the Richelieu the extreme aft turret (turret VII; in the center line position) was on the 68.85 frame. When Richelieu left for France, the crew received congratulations from General Leclerc, the French Commanding General in Indochina. Two groups of nine Oerlikon 20 mm single mountings were installed, the first atop the former aviation hangar (nicknamed «the cemetery»), the second abaft the wavebreaker on the fore castle (nicknamed «the trench»). [89], The same noteworthy weight accumulation in the fore tower top as on the Dunkerque proved to be a problem when the Richelieu was torpedoed at Dakar, as a whiplash effect on the main mast around which they were mounted provoked more serious effects on the fore tower systems than on those on the after tower, despite that the latter was nearer the torpedo explosion. [171], Once in her career (on 30 January 1956), she maneuvered with the Jean Bart for a few hours, before being based in Brest as a gunnery training school. [25][26], In 1927, studies were undertaken of 37,000-tonne (36,416-long-ton) battlecruisers. Richelieu was struck, surprisingly, on starboard aft, either because a torpedo with a magnetic warhead had passed under the keel before exploding,[58] or because one of the aircraft had attacked on starboard,[59] contrary to what the British asserted. Only the six 100 mm (3.9 in) turrets were usable. [17], The OPfK Model 1935 incorporated a dye bag and fuze (dispositif K) to color[lower-alpha 3] her splashes and the hits she inflicted. On 24 April 1941, the Richelieu could sail at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) on three engines, the fourth propeller having been removed. Jean Bart in 1955: On 15 June, the French Admiralty placed Richelieu under Admiral de Laborde, Amiral Ouest, C. in-C. French Navy at Brest, with order to prepare to send the battleship to the Clyde. [62][63] When Richelieu, on 24 September, opened fire against British battleships with her 380 mm (15 in) guns, she suffered severe damage to three barrels of her No. Their powerful anti-aircraft artillery in sixteen 105 mm (4.1 in) guns in eight double turrets, plus numerous 37 mm (1.5 in) and 20 mm (0.79 in) mountings, controlled by six high-angle directors was unmatched anywhere;[51] officially declared as 35,000 long tons (35,562 t), their displacement was actually more than 42,000 long tons (42,670 t) standard and even nearing 50,000 tonnes (49,210 long tons) full load. On 13 June, during the full power speed trials, 32 knots were maintained during three and half hours developing 155,000 shp, and 32.6 knots reached developing 175,000 shp. [21] The first Italian heavy cruiser unit built, the Trento, had been laid down in 1925 and launched in 1926. A total of 832 APC shells were intended to be provided, slightly fewer than for the Dunkerque-class battleships (896 rounds). [180][182], The question of the Jean Bart's completion was once more discussed by the French Admiralty in 1945. Specification: During July and August, repair of Richelieu began. On June 18, as the German Panzer divisions were approaching, the Commanding Officer was ordered to be ready to leave immediately for Casablanca or to scuttle the ship. She had a speed of 29.5 knots and protection able to resist the Deutschland's 280 mm shells. [71] But during firing practice,the U.S. manufactured MC420 powder charges gave some concern, as they frequently snagged, spilling powder into the firing chamber, thus putting the turret out of service to sweep it. These were laid down in May–June 1935, just after Adolf Hitler announced German rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty, and just before the Anglo-German Naval Agreement. In every case, with three turrets there would have been a weight excess in comparison with two quadruple turrets, and in consequence a propulsion plant power reduced to 100,000 horsepower (74.6 MW) and a speed loss of 2.5 knots (4.6 km/h; 2.9 mph), for a small benefit of distributing the main armament over a greater length. 16 × 37 mm (1.5 in) in 8 CAD Modèle 1933 mountings They claimed it displaced 10,000 long tons (10,200 t), following the Treaty of Versailles restrictions; it was actually at least 25% bigger, but this was not known at the time. The Richelieus were based on the preceding Dunkerque class, but scaled up to accommodate more powerful 380 mm (15 in) guns and armor to protect them from guns of the same caliber. [44] Heavier than the Dunkerque-class battleships 31,800-long-ton (32,310 t) with the hull dimensions of the Ersatz Yorck-class battlecruiser (projected in 1915), they were strongly armored with a 350 mm (14 in) belt and deck armor equivalent to the later King George V class and Bismarck class battleship classes. However, on 18 June 1935 the Anglo-German Naval Agreement had been signed between the United Kingdom â€“ without consulting France â€“ and the Third Reich, canceling de facto the Treaty of Versailles limitations concerning the displacements of the various types of warships and allowing Germany to build a war navy within the limit of 35% of the Royal Navy's total tonnage. The short range anti-aircraft artillery had only four double 37 mm (1.5 in) semi-automatic mountings, four quadruple 13.2 mm (0.52 in) Hotchkiss machine guns, and two twin 13.2 mm machine guns. Half the propulsion machinery (boilers and turbines) was fitted to be worked when necessary. Therefore, the Project A design was chosen for the first battleship to be laid down in the Salou building dock. Captain Marzin, aware of the signature of the Franco-German Armistice, and having received instructions from Admiral Darlan that his ship remain under the French flag, otherwise he had to scuttle her or to flee to the U.S.A., determined to escape what he considered as a British mouse trap. Her Commanding Officer and her landing party took part, beside General Leclerc, to the ceremonial during which General Itagaki surrendered to Admiral Mountbatten, on 12 September. [175], On 8 November 1942, Allied landings in French North Africa (Operation Torch) begun. This 23,333-long-ton (23,707 t) battleship would have had a length of 213 metres (699 ft) and a 27.5-metre (90 ft) beam, two quad 305-millimetre (12.0 in)/55 turrets forward, three quad 130-millimetre (5.1 in) Dual Purpose (DP) turrets aft, a 30-knot (56 km/h; 35 mph) top speed, 230-millimetre (9.1 in) belt armor, and 150-millimetre (5.9 in) deck armor. [61] Therefore, following the proposal of STCN's head, the Chief of Navy General Staff chose as early as November 1934 the all-forward arrangement with two quadruple turrets. [123], Three projects were studied, the first (project A) with the same quadruple arrangement forward as the Richelieu, but different secondary artillery arrangements, the second (project B) with one quadruple turret forward and one quadruple turret aft, the third (project C) with two fore triple turrets and one triple turret aft, in every case with a 380 mm (15 in) caliber. On 30 January 1956, for the only time in her career, Richelieu maneuvered with Jean Bart for a few hours. The discussion to choose between the other possibilities seems to have been rather unsatisfying. Initially two ships were ordered in 1935 in response to Italian orders for the Littorio-class battleships the previous year. Due to the advance of German troops, the battleship left Brest bound for Dakar on 18 June, at 16.00, escorted by destroyers Fougueux and Frondeur. Her armour and underwater protection were equal to most contemporary craft, only surpassed by the Japanese Yamato-class. Thence it was resolved to order from British manufacturers specially designed 380 mm HE shells, which will be registered, in the French post war ammunition inventories, as 380 mm OEA Model 1945. Articles needing clarification from March 2015, Articles with French-language external links, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Extensive description of Richelieu's combat service, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/French_battleship_Richelieu?oldid=3986375, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, two catapults, crane, four-aircraft hangar (before refit), main armament:eight/nine guns of 380/406 mm calibre, secondary armament: to be capable of fire against surface targets and long-range anti-aircraft fire, protection; belt 360 mm; upper armored deck 160 mm; lower armored deck 40 mm; underwater protection as for, The upper armored deck at main deck level was 150 mm (5.9 in) thick above the machinery plant and was increasing to 170 mm (6.7 in) above the main artillery magazines. [113] They were 6.30 meters (20.7 ft) long versus 5.33 m in on the Dunkerque, 4.65 meters (15.3 ft) height versus 5.34 meters (17.5 ft), and moreover 4.50 meters (14.8 ft) wide versus 6.50 meters (21.3 ft). [24], The fire control system was very similar to the Dunkerque's. Three ships in two subclasses were laid down, all of these had the main turrets in forward superfiring positions, while a fourth unit was planned with one turret forward and the other aft. The rate of fire was from 1.3 rounds per minute to 2 rpm. [176] But she was quickly silenced by the second hit from the 406 mm (16.0 in) guns of the USS Massachusetts, which jammed the turret rotating mechanism on the French battleship. The German Reichsmarine had ordered two units similar to the Deutschland, namely the Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee, which outgunned all existing heavy cruisers. They saw service during World War II, first under Vichy control in Dakar (1940) and Casablanca (1942), then under the Allies' control, the Richelieu participating in British Home Fleet and Eastern Fleet operations and supporting the French forces' return to Indochina in late 1945. The firing rate was expected at 120 rpm or above. Thus, in mid-1940 – nearly eighteen months later – she was only 10% complete… This refit, lasting through the Spring and Summer of 1943, was a matter of great debate between France and the United States. The lower lookout station (veille basse) for close-range contacts was on platform 3 of the fore tower. The triple 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1936 Dual Purpose turret was a further development of the 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1930 Low-Angle turret already proven on the French cruiser Émile Bertin and the La Galissonnière-class 7600-ton cruisers, at least comparable to the German 15 cm (5.9 in) SK C/36 gun turrets, or the Italian triple 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets Model 1934 or 1936. [156], Richelieu arrives in New York with her damaged turret II. 2 turret, due to premature explosion of the shells. Richelieu became the lead ship of the class and was followed by the Jean Bart. The French Navy Board (the Conseil Supérieur de la Marine, the French equivalent to the British Board of Admiralty) unanimously recommended on 25 June 1934 to leave the 1934 naval building plan unchanged, and to order the building of a new Dunkerque-class battleship with improved vertical (belt) armor: the Strasbourg's laying down was ordered on July 16, 1934. The main turrets were protected with a 405 mm (15.9 in) thick armor on the barbette; 430 mm (17 in) armor on the faces, inclined to 30°; from 170 mm (6.7 in) to 195 mm (7.7 in) on the roof; 270 mm (11 in) on the turret I rear wall; and 260 mm (10 in) on the turret II rear wall. Therefore, the 37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935 was expected to have a firing rate of 120 rpm or above. The boilers were of a new type, so-called Suralimenté, meaning pressure-fired (and thus the abbreviation of Sural) boilers. [158] All these modifications increased her displacement by 3,000 tonnes (3,000 long tons). [25] The main rudder servo-motors were completely unserviceable, the turbo-dynamos were severely shaken. For the Bismarck, the figures are 17258 tons or 17540 tons for the armor weight, and from 43.92% to 41.30%, depending on whether the percentage is calculated with 39931 tons light displacement or 41781 tons standard displacement. It appeared that the previous French proposals' armament might be retained and that the speed might be no more than 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph), but the most important feature was that the armor had to be thicker to resist 280-millimetre (11 in) shells. [107] The Italian Littorio-class battleships had a peculiar underwater protection system, designed by the Italian chief designer, Generale Ispettore del Genio Navale Pugliese, which incorporated a 3.8-meter (12 ft) diameter cylindrical expansion space. On 9 July, Captain Onslow radioed to Admiral Plançon that he sincerely expressed the hope that the operation he had undertaken with much grief, the day before, had not caused any killed or wounded among the officers and crews. She eventually limped into Singapore at noon on 11 September.[166][167]. Soon after, she was based in Brest. She returned via Diego Suarez to Trincomalee, where she arrived on 18 August, learning of the Japanese surrender on 15 August. Therefore, an improved gun (28 cm SK C/34), with a longer barrel and higher muzzle velocity but the same 280 mm (11 in) caliber, was reluctantly chosen. 2 and No. [90], On the after tower, there was only the auxiliary system for the 152 mm (6.0 in) artillery (system 3) with a 6-meter (20 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder. The battleship emerged with a much more compact fore control tower, topped by only one rangefinder (Richelieu had two ones after her refit). Thus, in the 1931 Estimates in July, funds were allocated only for further studies; in addition, the law had the stipulation that the final characteristics must be subject to a thorough review, the results of which would have to be submitted to the Parliament before passing any building orders. The next operation, to intercept the Haguro, was abortive. 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Was followed by the large German warships remaining in Norway mast was shortened remain this. Which saw service in the liberation of Singapore, Operation Tiderace Richelieu could sail 14... 36,416-Long-Ton ) battlecruisers and richelieu french battleship to outclass the German `` pocket battleship Canadian-built!