Long believed to represent mainly a source of infection, the human skin microbiota is nowadays well accepted as an important driver of human (skin) health and well-being. Although microbial variations of these sites are highly consistent between people, the relative abundance of the individual skin microbiota, especially low-abundance microbial species, can be differentiated by metagenomic shotgun sequencing of high-resolution and multikingdom analyses (Oh et al., 2016), which hints that the individual may be identified from any part of the skin (Lax et al., 2017). With increasing identification of highly personalized skin microbial communities (Oh et al., 2016), the presence of specific strains in patients emphasizes the importance of the individuality in the disease process and in response to diagnosis and treatment, which may provide an opportunity for precision medicine in the field of skin microbiota. Search by expertise, name or affiliation. (2018). (2019). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Disturbances of the skin microbiota have been directly correlated with multiple diseases. J. A single application of S. hominis A9 with anti-S. aureus activity confirmed a significant decrease in S. aureus colonizing mice and pig skin, comparing with application of S. hominis isolates without antimicrobial activity. Prevalence of facial acne vulgaris in late adolescence and in adults. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis. Sci. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470968). doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005812, Jo, J. H., Kennedy, E. A., and Kong, H. H. (2016). J. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea. Atopic dermatitis. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat8329, Wu, G., Zhao, H., Li, C., Rajapakse, M. P., Wong, W. C., Xu, J., et al. An adult human body has approximately 2 m2 of skin, and it contains about 10^12 numbers of bacteria. Dermatol. (2009). 69, 1957–1960. |, Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives, https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.570261, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). In an open-label phase I/II safety and activity trial in 10 adult and 5 pediatric patients, topical microbiome transplantation with R. mucosa led to a prominent reduction in AD severity and S. aureus burden without any negative reactions or treatment complications. However, little information is available on the potential roles of chronic urban PAH pollutant exposure on the cutaneous microbiota. Clin. Topographically, the human skin can be divided into many regions and each region represents its own micro-environment (Grice and Segre, 2011). The Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome event, brings together leading scientists, physicians, and senior leaders to explore the potential insights into the Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome that exhibits significant potential in the near future. A single application of S. epidermidis strain producing 6-HAP to mouse impaired the incidence of ultraviolet-induced skin tumors. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.6171.1109, Darabi, K., Hostetler, S. G., Bechtel, M. A., and Zirwas, M. (2009). Di Domizio J, Pagnoni A, Huber M, Hohl D, Gilliet M. Rev Med Suisse. Microbiome Analysis of the Human Skin Microbiota. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.04.053, Simpson, E. L., Bieber, T., Guttman-Yassky, E., Beck, L. A., Blauvelt, A., Cork, M. J., et al. On the other hand, shotgun metagenomic sequencing provides much higher resolution to differentiate species-, strain- and even single-nucleotide variant (SNV)-level diversification, as all genetic material in the sample is simultaneously sequenced (Oh et al., 2014, 2016; Grogan et al., 2019). The skin microbiota is indispensable for host skin health, as dermatological conditions have been linked to the alteration of the cutaneous microbiota [ … In addition, the topical application of live CoNS strain S. hominis C5 producing an AIP (SYNVCGGYF) to murine skin resulted in potent inhibition of S. aureus agr activity, demonstrating that the human skin microbiota can contribute to epithelial barrier homeostasis by using quorum sensing to dampen S. aureus virulence factors (Williams et al., 2019). (2016). However, the correlation of multidirectional signals in the ecology of skin microbiota is poorly understood. In a randomized and double-blind trial, the cream was applied to 11 AD subjects who were not able to dampen S. aureus before accepting Gallo's intervention. Besides, metabolites of R. mucosa on the non-lesional and lesional skin of AD patients demonstrated that differences at strain level might contribute to disease pathology. The human skin is inhabited by millions of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that compose the skin microbiota. Cleanliness in context: reconciling hygiene with a modern microbial perspective. Although its mechanism is not well-understood, there are already some applications for ecology-based therapy with the aim of correcting the imbalances on the cutaneous ecosystem. Acad. doi: 10.1038/nature25177, Chien, A. L., Tsai, J., Leung, S., Mongodin, E. F., Nelson, A. M., Kang, S., et al. 133, 2152–2160. Here, we focus on members of the healthy human skin microbiota, which we consider as those taxa that stably reside (intransient) on the normal skin in the majority of humans. The human skin microbiome. Dis. (2017). Mycoses 51(Suppl 4), 2–15. (2015). 5, 363–375. Sci. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.10271, Meisel, J. S., Hannigan, G. D., Tyldsley, A. S., SanMiguel, A. J., Hodkinson, B. P., Zheng, Q., et al. genomes (Wu et al., 2015). After sequential applications of probiotic solutions containing different combinations from one strain to multiple strains of C. acnes on 18 subjects in the first 3 days, the observation demonstrated that the level of engraftment was positively correlated with the presence of several different strains in the probiotic solution, implicating that different strain combinations have synergistic effects on colonization of recipient skin surface and modulation of the C. acnes population at the strain level is feasible by microbiome transplantation. Composition of Human Skin Microbiota Affects Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes. Microbiol. 9:eaah6500. J. Pediatr. Sci. 10:2730. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10646-7, Bolotin, A., Quinquis, B., Sorokin, A., and Ehrlich, S. D. (2005). (2019). Skin commensal malassezia globosa secreted protease attenuates Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. PLoS Genet 11:e1005614. Skin microbiota's community effort. Although research on the skin microbiota lags behind studies of gut flora, there are already some applications for ecology-based therapy with the aim of correcting the imbalances on the cutaneous ecosystem. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. (2012). (2014). The full length of AIP is composed of 7–12 amino acids with the last 5 amino acids forming a cyclic (thio)lactone ring between the C-terminal and a cysteine or serine side chain (Janek et al., 2016; Zipperer et al., 2016; Nakatsuji et al., 2017). Human skin is colonized by a complex microbial community, considered for a long time as dominated by Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci, micrococci, corynebacteria, Propionibacterium spp., Brevibacterium spp., and members of the genus Acinetobacter being the most frequently encountered Gram-negative bacteria in human skin microbiota. Based on analyses at the genus and species levels using 16S rRNA sequencing, 8 of the 20 prevalent genera in most of the AD patients and 7 of the 15 species identified had distinct difference in relative abundance between children and adults in both lesional and non-lesional skin of AD (Shi et al., 2016). (2012). Most microbiome studies concentrate on understanding bacterial composition, but the microbes present in human skin habitats are not limited to bacteria. Nanotechnol. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1,000 species upon human skin from nineteen phyla. Commensal-dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07371-3, Jahns, A. C., Lundskog, B., Ganceviciene, R., Palmer, R. H., Golovleva, I., Zouboulis, C. C., et al. (2019). 129, 2136–2141. One cue is that Malassezia peaks in greasy skin in infants or adolescence, but AD becomes less common (Havlickova et al., 2008; Seebacher et al., 2008). doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.01.008, Bitschar, K., Sauer, B., Focken, J., Dehmer, H., Moos, S., Konnerth, M., et al. (2017) isolated the CoNS collected from the skin of normal and AD individuals using high-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human sebocytes. Nature 535, 511–516. Rev. 2020 Oct;37(5):641-650. doi: 10.5114/ada.2019.90120. N. Engl. Compared to traditional antibiotic therapy of directly eradicating pathogens by brute force, the advantage of this methodology is not only to reduce the formation of drug-resistant bacteria but also to avoid destroying the indigenous microbiota of patients. Characterization of different courses of atopic dermatitis in adolescent and adult patients. Human skin microbiota has been described as a "microbial fingerprint" due to observed differences between individuals. Epub 2019 Dec 25. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000241. (2013). In a case–control study utilizing immunofluorescent labeling to visualize different C. acnes phylotypes in macrocolonies/biofilms in sebaceous follicles of facial skin biopsies from AV patients, AV development was unequivocally linked with the occurrence and localization of C. acnes in follicles, and the formation of C. acnes biofilms attached to the hair shaft and follicular epithelial wall increased morbidity of AV patients (Jahns et al., 2012). Staphylococcus aureus and atopic dermatitis: a complex and evolving relationship. In addition to bacterial dysbiosis, many reports have suggested that fungi and viruses have an impact on skin conditions by their own changes in cutaneous microbial communities, such as Malassezia and eczema (Darabi et al., 2009; Chng et al., 2016) and herpesviruses and chickenpox (Chen et al., 2018). Dysbiosis in acne vulgaris (AV) is characterized by a decrease in the proportion of C. acnes strains RT6 and the significant increase in the proportion of C. acnes strains RT4, RT5, RT7, RT8, RT9, and RT10. Human skin microbiota has been described as a “microbial fingerprint” due to observed differences between individuals. Sfriso R, Egert M, Gempeler M, Voegeli R, Campiche R. Int J Cosmet Sci. Am. Dermatol. 14, 1093–1103. Whole metagenome profiling reveals skin microbiome-dependent susceptibility to atopic dermatitis flare. Dermatol. J. Dermatol. Resident microbes are found in the upper epidermis, collected around hair follicles. Shift of bacterial communities during atopic dermatitis (AD) disease progression. Analysis of complete genomes of Propionibacterium acnes reveals a novel plasmid and increased pseudogenes in an acne associated strain. (2011). Nakatsuji et al. Invest. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. In the May issue of Experimental Dermatology 2018, we published a review article focusing on human 3D skin models in the context of microbiota research. (2011). doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1610020, Sohn, E. (2018). J. Clin. Immunol. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Figure 1. The skin is home to a wide variety of normal microbiota, consisting of commensal organisms that derive nutrition from skin cells and secretions such as sweat and sebum. Quorum sensing between bacterial species on the skin protects against epidermal injury in atopic dermatitis. Microbes Infect. European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice. doi: 10.1126/science.1171700, Grice, E. A., and Segre, J. The available evidence has clearly indicated that the dysbiosis of cutaneous microbiota is substantially associated with multiple skin disorders, and the degree of disorder has a positive correlation with the severity of skin disease. A. (2013). Phenotype and antimicrobial activity of Th17 cells induced by propionibacterium acnes strains associated with healthy and acne skin. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Proc. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14566, Tsakok, T., Woolf, R., Smith, C. H., Weidinger, S., and Flohr, C. (2018). The diversity of bacteria is vary based on the different locations of our skin. AV (also commonly called acne) is one of the most ubiquitary non-communicable inflammatory dermatoses of the pilosebaceous unit (Williams et al., 2012; Lichtenberger et al., 2017), characterized by both specific localization on skin regions of abundant sebaceous glands (such as the face, neck, and back) and manifestations within a narrow age range in association with adolescence followed by frequent resolution (Szegedi et al., 2019). Characterization of microbiome and human host from three cohorts of microbiome-associated conditions, using multiple 'omics technologies. Our bodies share a symbiotic relationship with trillions of microbes including bacteria, fungi, mites, and viruses.Together, they make up the microbiome, which resides in particular areas of the body such as the skin and gut .. The skin microbiome is the genetic material of all these microbes. Persistence of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. Acad. Invest. 16, 143–155. High frequency and diversity of antimicrobial activities produced by nasal staphylococcus strains against bacterial competitors. Spatially, the skin microbiota may extend to subepidermal compartments . Actually, it is still unknown how the homeostasis is maintained and shaped by the skin microbiota, but the balance between members of skin microbial communities plays a pivotal role in guarding against cutaneous disorders (Dreno et al., 2016). The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic envi … Microbial guardians of skin health. Front. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. HZ drafted the manuscript. The study reported here contributes to the broad goals of this project and may have implications for the future treatment of skin disorders. The predominant species of CoNS with antimicrobial activity were identified as S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis, although many strains of the CoNS species did not produce antimicrobial activity. Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Microbiol. Amplicon sequencing is the most commonly used for characterizing skin microbiota communities by the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene for bacteria (Jo et al., 2016) or the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal gene for fungi (Schoch et al., 2012). Furthermore, skin microbiome studies have overwhelmingly focused on the structure of the healthy skin microbiome , , its temporal stability , , , , or the skin microbiome of dermatological conditions , , , , , . doi: 10.1002/jcla.23363. Rev. A comprehensive overview on different 3D human skin models is provided by Rademacher et al [ 1 ] Given the huge heterogeneity and variance of different methods to generate 3D skin models, it seems reasonable to define a set of standard parameters to validate the quality of the individual models. (2002). The skin microbiome is different in pediatric versus adult atopic dermatitis. Although there is no consistent definition of a healthy cutaneous ecosystem, some of the main parameters, such as microbial composition, diversity, and stability, have been established as key markers of homeostasis (Vandegrift et al., 2017). Nat. Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. (2017). The most recent estimate of prevalence of AD in the adult population is ~10% (Weidinger et al., 2018). (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.01.008, Paternoster, L., Standl, M., Waage, J., Baurecht, H., Hotze, M., Strachan, D. P., et al. Atopic dermatitis. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2015.10.006, Findley, K., Oh, J., Yang, J., Conlan, S., Deming, C., Meyer, J. Nanotechnology intervention of the microbiome for cancer therapy. (2014). Acad. Early skin microbiome studies described healthy human skin microbial communities as more diverse than those previously recognized through cultivation methods (Dekio et al., 2005, Gao et al., 2007, Grice et al., 2008) and unique to skin (Costello et al., 2009, Human Microbiome Project Consortium, 2012a, Human Microbiome Project Consortium, 2012b). Dermatol. Transl. This indicates that the decrease in surface lipids may restrict Malassezia's ecological competitiveness. doi: 10.1128/JB.01882-14, O'Neill, A. M., and Gallo, R. L. (2018). 136, e23–e27. Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. 2020 Jun 4;19(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s12941-020-00367-x. For instance, the abnormal proliferation of Fusobacterium nucleatum in the gut has been linked to colorectal cancer through their adherence and invasion into intestinal epithelial cells, ultimately resulting in increased oncogenic and inflammatory responses (Song et al., 2019), which suggests that certain members of human skin microbiota may curb tumor growth. Amphibians have microbiota on their skin. There are 1,000 different bacterial species and up to 80 different fungi species. Med. *Correspondence: Wei Liu, email@example.com; Zhi Liu, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. Brevibacterium 3. JAMA Dermatol. Cell. In this study, we performed metagenomic profiling on skin swabs collected from the forearm (antecubital fossa) of … Allergy Clin. Interspecies interactions influence the composition of microbial communities, but their mechanisms are poorly understood. (2014). [The skin microbiota: a colossus steps into the spotlight]. A microbiome-based index for assessing skin health and treatment effects for atopic dermatitis in children. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.04.066, Goodman, A. L., Kallstrom, G., Faith, J. J., Reyes, A., Moore, A., Dantas, G., et al. Cutaneous microbiome studies in the times of affordable sequencing. (2016). doi: 10.1007/s10096-016-2647-3, Totté, J. E. E., van der Feltz, W. T., Hennekam, M., van Belkum, A., van Zuuren, E. J., and Pasmans, S. G. M. A. Clinical phenotypes and endophenotypes of atopic dermatitis: where are we, and where should we go? National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 139, 166–172. The principal intention was to provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models in microbiota analyses. 138, 1137–1145. (2012). Of note, heterogeneous S. epidermidis strain communities in less severe AD flares are genomically similar to nosocomial strains that are a leading cause of mortality of sepsis in newborn infants (Meisel et al., 2016). Keratinocytes-produced H-AMPs LL-37 induced by cytokines synergize with MP-MAPs (such as S. epidermidis lantibiotics), which can kill S. aureus more effectively. As seen in healthy individuals, bacteria communities are the most abundant kingdom across time points and body sites for AD patients, whereas fungal communities are the least abundant and mainly Malassezia species, particularly Malassezia restricta and Malassezia globose (Findley et al., 2013; Chng et al., 2016; Oh et al., 2016). The therapeutic potential of topical live R. mucosa in humans for the management of acne caused by acnes. Different fungi species Search history, and where should we go synergy host-... 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